Prior to the Edo period, it had been quite common for individuals of either low or high rank to seek revenge for an insult or the death of a family member; samurai were expected to extract revenge for the death of his lord or father. During the Edo period, however, it became illegal to carry out a vendetta unless the avenger applied to the appropriate authorities for permission. The Tokugawa shogunate usually permitted vendettas carried out by individuals, but frowned on vendettas by large groups of samurai because of the risk of large-scale fighting and destruction. Applying for permission to seek vengeance meant, of course, that the element of surprise was lost forever. The best known, but illegal, vendetta was that carried out by the 47 loyal ronin in 1703 which was immortalized in the Edo period Chushingura and other dramatic productions including motion pictures.