Tozama daimyo (outside or enemy daimyo) were feudal lords labeled enemies by the Tokugawa regime for being on the wrong side at the battle of Sekigahara in 1600. They were excluded from power during the Edo period. They were allowed to retain their domains, but they were subjected to controls including a system of spying and were excluded from high office in the Tokugawa shogunate. They could be punished to the extent of losing their domains. These daimyo maintained a hostile attitude throughout the Edo period and four of them (Satsuma, Choshu, Hizen and Tosa) united to overthrow the shogunate in 1868.